Principles of Radiometric Dating: Kunchithapadam Gopalan
Radiometric Methods of Dating Fossils:1. Auflage. Kimberly Wylie
Modern geologists and geophysicists accept that the age of the Earth is around 4.54 billion years. This age has been determined by radiometric age dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar sampl
One of the most compelling and authoritative rebuttals of evolution today, Evolution Impossible shows listeners how fossils are evidence of extinction, not evolution; why mutations never produce new genetic information; how the lack of transitional fossils undermines secular timelines; and why living cells and new classes of organisms don´t form by chance. Using recent discoveries in genetics, biochemistry, geology, radiometric dating, and other scientific disciplines, Dr. Ashton explains chapter by chapter in straightforward language 12 compelling reasons why Darwin´s theory of evolution is just a myth. Taking the evidence refuting evolution to a new level with a wide-ranging analysis, this is a must-listen book for all students, Christian educators, scientists, and anyone eager to defend a biblical worldview. 1. Language: English. Narrator: John McLain. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/blak/009767de/bk_rhde_002536_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
This book will broaden readers understanding of pegmatites in a special geodynamic setting, dealing with the emplacement of the Hagendorf-Pleystein Pegmatite Province (HPPP) in the Central European Variscides. This treatise illustrates the complex processes leading to the formation and partial destruction of the pegmatites, documenting the geochronological, chemical, mineralogical, geological and geomorphological / sedimentological data set. The book starts with a detailed account of the economic geology of the various pegmatites, explaining why these deposits are a major resource of ceramic raw materials. In its concluding section, a model of the pegmatite evolution in an ensialic orogen provides meaningful insights into the genetic aspects of pegmatite generation. The Late Paleozoic rare-element pegmatites of the HPPP, Oberpfalz-SE, Germany, rank among the largest concentrations in Europe. The biggest pegmatite of this mining district totals 4.4 million tons of ore (Hagendorf-South). The mining history of the HPPP is restricted to the 20th century, when local entrepreneurs started mining operations in search of ceramic raw materials, feldspar and quartz. Today the Silbergrube Aplite is still worked for feldspar. The traditional mining of pegmatitic and aplitic rocks in Central Europe, such as the Bohemian Massif, which is shared by Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland and Austria, has been focused on these industrial minerals. In addition to these major commodities, lithium was mined for a period of time. But even today many of these pegmatites of calc-alkaline affiliation have not lost their appeal to mineralogists and mineral enthusiasts for their wealth of minerals that contain P, Nb, Ta, Li, Be, B, U, Th, Sc, Ti and Sn. The most favorable crustal section to bring about pegmatitic rocks of this type, encompassing pegmatoids, metapegmatites, reactivated pseudopegmatites and pegmatites sensu stricto is the ensialic orogen, exemplified by the Variscan (Hercynian) Orogen, which geodynamically connects the Paleozoic pegmatite provinces in North America and Europe. The geological history of the HPPP, however, goes much further than the Carboniferous-Permian magmatic activity, when the last structural disturbances of the Variscan orogeny affected the NE-Bavarian Basement between 450 and 330 Ma. During this time mafic magmatic rocks together with calcareous and arenaceous sediments were converted into paragneisses, calcsilicate rocks, and amphibolites. It is the period of time when tectonic shortening led to over thrusting and when the emplacement of nappes and the architectural elements of the ensialic orogen began taking shape. During the Late Permian, the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic, the HPPP did not lie idle in geological terms; hypogene and supergene alteration continued and found its most recent expression in alluvial-fluvial nigrine placer deposits, which resulted from the unroofing of the pegmatites and aplites in the HPPP and can be used even outside HPPP as an ore guide to pegmatites. After 2 years active service in an armored artillery battalion with the German Army (his rank when resigning from the armed forces in 2006 was colonel of the German Armed Forces Reserve) he began studying geology in 1971 at Würzburg University (minor: geography, mineralogy) followed by economic geology at the Technical University at Aachen. He received his M.Sc. degree in geology in 1975 after having submitted his master thesis on stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental studies. In 1978 he was graduated from Erlangen University with a PhD thesis on pyritiferous Pb-Cu-Zn deposits in Tuscany, Italy, submitted to the Dept. of Mineralogy. Subsequently, he entered upon a one-year research work at the Dept. of Soil Sciences and Soil Geography of Bayreuth University, where he was mainly engaged in shallow geophysical sounding and the study of duricrusts. Since 1979 he has been with the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover-Dept. of Geophysics/ Radiometric age dating. He was mainly involved in the study of uranium concentration processes, a joint research projects carried out in close cooperation with international agencies and exploration companies in France, Italy and Australia. From 1986 through 1991 he was a staff member of the project management group of the Continental Deep Drilling Program of the F.R. Germany, being responsible for economic geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. In 2014 he retired from